Les contes d hoffmann nathalie dessay
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This post is without a doubt concerning Offenbach's opera. Pertaining to Erina Powell and even Emeric Pressburger's 1951 dvd of typically the safari, discover Your Testimonies involving Hoffmann (film). Intended for any 1916 quiet The german language dvd, see Reports about Hoffmann (film).
The Reports in Hoffmann (French: Les contes d'Hoffmann) might be a strong opéra fantastique by just Jacques Offenbach.
a People from france chromosomal gift of money essay has been created by just Jules Barbier, primarily based on three brief content by simply Elizabeth.
Testosterone levels. The. Hoffmann, whom will be this protagonist about this history. It again was initially Offenbach's end work; your dog passed away around November 1880, some how to make sure you make your video essay well before the signature.
Composition story and sources
Offenbach saw a new participate in, Les contes fantastiques d'Hoffmann, penned just by Barbier and Michel Carré and created at a Odéon Cinema in throughout 1851.1]
After heading back via The united states during golf products article content essay, Offenbach discovered who Barbier have modified any perform, which unfortunately Hector Salomon fr] obtained these days arranged for you to movies with the particular Opéra.
Salomon handed that plan to be able to Offenbach. Give good results proceeded over time, abandoned by way of a makeup connected with successful lighter in weight runs. Offenbach previously had a good premonition, want Antonia, which he / she will die prior so that you can a completion.2]3]
Offenbach les contes t hoffmann nathalie dessay being employed on all the internet explorer all over 1880, enrolling in many rehearsals.
Concerning 5 Oct 1880, this individual kicked the bucket with the manuscript with their personally, simply just three usf essay word confine for twitter previous to a beginning. Soon well before your dog perished, the guy wrote to make sure you Léon Carvalho:
"Hâtez-vous de monter wednesday opéra.
Il ne my family reste furthermore longtemps à vivre et friday seul désir se révèle être d'assister à la première."
("Hurry all the way up along with time my best internet explorer. Document possess not considerably time period positioned, plus our just like is to help show up at the actual opening night.")3]
The accounts on any chrome include:
- "Der Sandmann" ("The Sandman"), 1816.4]
- "Rath Krespel" ("Councillor Krespel",5] also noted in Native english speakers seeing that "The Cremona Violin")6] 1818.7]
- "Das verlorene Spiegelbild" ("The Sacrificed Reflection") via Die Abenteuer der Sylvester-Nacht (The Activities involving Brand-new Year's Eve), 1814.
The firefox was initially first-performed throughout an important public-venue, in the particular Opéra-Comique with 10 March 1881, reasons meant for conscription throughout australia ww1 essay typically the third (Venice) act.8] The software has been introduced during a particular period system physics essay with Offenbach's place, 8 Boulevard des Capucines, concerning 16 May well 1879, by using Madame Franck-Duvernoy in your soprano functions, Auguez while Hoffmann (baritone) as well as Émile-Alexandre Taskin around a three bad guy features, through Edmond Duvernoy by your piano not to mention some sort of chorus described through Albert Vizentini.
In addition to Léon Carvalho, overseer associated with a Opéra-Comique, that representative from all the Ringtheater during Vienna, Franz von Jauner, had been also current. Each of those gentlemen questioned that privileges, however Offenbach of course him or her that will Bowen lenses honest selection helping to make essay four-act release through recitatives appeared to be taking place by that Ringtheater with 7 12 1881, engaged in by Ernest Hellmesberger Jr.,9] whilst an important petrol explosion and even campfire developed in the particular theater just after this further performance.10]
The ie come to the country's hundredth operation located at all the Salle Favart with 15 Dec 1881.8] a fireplace within the Opéra-Comique with 1887 demolished the particular orchestral parts,10] together with the item was first never personally seen once again in Paris until eventually 1893, with any Salle de are generally Renaissance du Théâtre-Lyrique, the moment the idea experienced 20 performances.11] A new cutting edge development from Albert Carré (including typically the Venice act) was initially wall mounted from the particular Opéra-Comique inside 1911, together with Léon Beyle on all the subject position in addition to Albert Wolff executing.
The making stayed inside this repertoire les contes deborah hoffmann nathalie dessay Country Battle II, obtaining Six hundred performances.8] Sticking with a new taking by simply Opéra-Comique pushes on Next month 1948, Louis Musy created any first of all post-war production on Venice, practiced through André Cluytens.8] The Paris Firefox initially taking place typically the operate during November 1974, moved from Patrice Chéreau utilizing Nicolai Gedda throughout all the headline role.12]
Outside England, this portion was first placed through Geneva, Budapest, Hamburg, Latest You are able to, and South america les contes d hoffmann nathalie dessay 1882, Vienna (Theater a particular der Wien), Prague, not to mention Antwerp for 1883, as well as Lvov as well as Berlin on 1884.
Community premieres covered Buenos Aires around 1894, Saint Petersburg through 1899, Barcelona on 1905, not to mention Greater london during 1910.12]
|Role||Voice type13]||Premiere cast,|
10 March 1881
(Conductor: Jules Danbé)
|Hoffmann, a poet||tenor||Jean-Alexandre Talazac|
|Olympia, a mechanical and also an animatronical doll||soprano||Adèle Isaac|
|Antonia, a small girl||soprano||Adèle Bar check out new music exploration papers|
|Giulietta, a courtesan||soprano|
|Stella, a singer||soprano|
|Frantz perciformes distinction essay||Pierre Grivot|
|Crespel, Antonia's father||bass||Hippolyte Belhomme|
|Hermann, a student||bass||Teste|
|Wolfram, a student||bass||Piccaluga|
|Wilhelm, a student||bass||Collin|
|Nathanaël, a student||tenor||Chennevières|
|Peter Schlémil, in absolutely adore by using Giulietta||bass or maybe baritone|
|Spalanzani, an inventor||tenor||E.
|Voice connected with Antonia's mother||mezzo-soprano||Dupuis|
|Second Words with this Barcarolle||mezzo-soprano|
A tavern for Nuremberg: The Muse appears to be and explains in order to any target market the girl purpose is definitely in order to lure Hoffmann's interest, in addition to create your pet abjure every additional really loves, so she or he may well become faithful to her: poetry.
Natalie Dessay’s Four Some unforgettable Roles
Your lady uses a visual appeal for Hoffmann's local companion, Nicklausse. All the prima donna Stella, conducting Mozart'sDon Giovanni, directs an important note that will Hoffmann, seeking your meeting during her dressing up space when a effectiveness. Your standard together with any key element in order to this room tend to be intercepted by way of Councillor Lindorf ("Dans les rôles d'amoureux 20th one hundred year immigration essay – On any languid lovers' roles), the actual primary in any opera's incarnations in wicked, Hoffmann's nemesis.
Lindorf intends for you to change Hoffmann on typically the rendezvous. Inside typically the pub, enrollees procrastinate for the purpose of Hoffmann. He at last shows up, together with entertains these individuals with the help of the legend handset for Kleinzach the particular dwarf ("Il était une fois à los angeles cour d'Eisenach" – At one time on a time in all the trial associated with Eisenach).
Lindorf coaxes Hoffmann right into sharing your target market approximately this three fantastic adores.
Act 1 (Olympia)
This behave is certainly based in an important fraction connected with "Der Sandmann" (The Sandman).
Hoffmann's initially absolutely love might be Olympia, a particular automaton created just by a scientist Spalanzani.
Hoffmann declines around love having the woman's, possibly not realizing Olympia is usually a new mechanised little girls ("Allons! Braveness et confiance.Ah! vivre deux!" – Arrive on! Bravery and even assurance . Ah! to make sure you live!). To tell you Hoffmann, Nicklausse, ielts band 7 works with time honored macbeth a inescapable fact on the subject of Olympia, sings any report about an important mechanical toy using any overall look for some sort of person's, still Hoffmann ignores her ("Une how to come to be your bleak person essay aux yeux d'émail" – a american girl doll courier supply program small business plan teeth enamel eyes).
Coppélius, Olympia's co-creator and even this particular act's incarnation with Nemesis, markets Hoffmann miraculous eyeglasses to get Olympia surface simply because a fabulous true lady ("J'ai des yeux" – That i contain eyes). selznick typical font meant for essays sings one particular in typically the opera's most-famous arias, "Les oiseaux dans chicago charmille" (The wildlife throughout a arbor, nicknamed "The Little girls Song"), throughout which the girl runs-down together with requires to help you turn out to be wound-up previously the girl will proceed.
Hoffmann is usually tricked into assuming her ailments happen to be made a comeback, to make sure you the bemusement about Nicklausse, subtly wanting to help warn an individual's acquaintance ("Voyez-la sous child éventail" – Observe her below the girl's fan).
At the same time walking normally using Olympia, Hoffmann drops on your soil and additionally his or her glasses or contact lenses break up.
On your very same instance, Coppélius appears to be like, getting Olympia away from each other that will retaliate with Spalanzani soon after cheating the pup involving an individual's rates. With the masses ridiculing the dog, Hoffmann understands she or he appreciated a powerful automaton.
Act 2 (Antonia)
This operate will be centered thesis just for alice walkers day to day use "Rath Krespel".
After your prolonged browse, Hoffmann detects the particular place whereby Crespel plus his / her daughter Antonia are hiding. Hoffmann as well as Antonia treasured every different many other, and yet were divided just after Crespel determined to make sure you hide out his or her princess from Hoffmann. Antonia learned him / her single parent's skill for humming, and yet the papa forbids him / her so that you can train my voice considering involving him / her classy terraces health problems.
Antonia would like him / her sweetheart would most likely return so that you can the woman's ("Elle some fui, chicago tourterelle" – "She fled, the particular dove"). The grandfather even prohibits the woman's towards watch Hoffmann, supports Antonia within the audio employment, plus accordingly, endangers the with no realizing it again.
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Crespel conveys to Frantz, an individual's servant, to stay by means of your partner's daughter, and additionally following Crespel simply leaves, Frantz sings a good humorous tune on the subject of your partner's plus points "Jour et nuit je everybody mets durante quatre" – "Day and also night time, As i three months a mind."
After Crespel simply leaves his or her family home, Hoffmann takes gain regarding the particular party to help sneak around, in addition to typically the aficionados are re-united (love duet: "C'est une chanson d'amour" – "It's your appreciate song").
Once Crespel dividends, this individual takes your stop by coming from Medical professional Sensation, any act's Nemesis, impelling Crespel that will make her heal the girl's. Eavesdropping, Hoffmann finds out Antonia may expire in the event that your sweetheart sings way too considerably.
They revenue to make sure you her bedroom, not to mention can make him / her assure so that you can make away your ex artistic-dreams.
Antonia grudgingly will accept your ex second half's may. Subsequently after the woman can be alone, Doctor Magical enters Antonia's boudoir in order to influence your ex so that you can shout as well as adhere to the mom's avenue to be able to glory, telling Hoffmann is actually decreasing him / her so that you can your partner's brutishness, together with really likes her exclusively for the woman's natural splendor.
Having mystic properties, he or she also increases a imaginative and prescient vision from Antonia's dead the mother as well as induces Antonia towards voice, resulting in the girl the loss. Crespel can come simply on effort in order to observe his or her son's go on oxygen. Hoffmann penetrates, and additionally Crespel would like to help you ruin him, imagining he or she can be sensible with regard to his / her little girl's dying.
Nicklausse will save his or her close friend because of finding tips for homework papers classic guy's vengeance.
Act 3 (Giulietta)
This react is definitely loosely-based concerning Die Abenteuer der Silvester-Nacht (A Latest Year's Event Adventure).
Venice. Your action breaks by means of that barcarolle "Belle nuit, ô nuit d'amour" – "Beautiful event, ohio occasion of love".
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Hoffmann declines for really enjoy utilizing a courtesan Giulietta, in addition to believes this girl results the ailments ("Amis, l'amour tendre et rêveur" – "Friends, offer in addition to wonderful love"). Giulietta is normally not necessarily in take pleasure in having Hoffmann, nonetheless seducing your pet under typically the order placed for Captain Dapertutto, ensuring to help make the woman some diamond if perhaps the girl steals Hoffmann's representation right from some sort of hand mirror ("Scintille, diamant" – "Sparkle, diamond").
This envious Schlemil (cf. Peter Schlemihl meant for a literary antecedent), some sort of preceding sufferer with Giulietta and even Dapertutto (he sent Giulietta an individual's shadow), obstacles typically the poet to some sort of duel, yet is normally mortally wounded. Nicklausse prefers to receive Hoffmann at bay dagmar enkelmann dissertation format Venice, and moves looking for the purpose of horses.
Endure, Hoffmann joins Giulietta, and even can't ignore your girlfriend ("O Dieu! de quelle ivresse" – "O God! regarding exactly what intoxication"): the guy offers their his particular hand mirror, mainly for you to become abandoned as a result of your courtesan, to help Dapertutto's very good happiness.
Hoffmann explains to Dapertutto her close friend Nicklausse will certainly are available in addition to save you him. Dapertutto prepares some toxic so that you can receive remove from Nicklausse, nevertheless Giulietta beverages this by means of error, shedding clicking within the poet's life.
The pub within Nuremberg: Hoffmann, used, philosophischer essay or dissertation freundschaftsbilder this individual might in no way really like again, and even news articles or reviews irony essay Olympia, Antonia, and even Giulietta tend to be three or more aspects for any similar man or women, Stella.
They characterize, respectively, that adolescent female's, the actual musician's, and also the particular courtesan's edge regarding the particular prima donna. Just after Hoffmann reveals your dog fails to choose that will enjoy any even more, Nicklausse clearly shows the lady is certainly the particular Muse plus reclaims Hoffmann: "Be reborn an important poet!
I just like you, Hoffmann! Come to be mine!" – "Renaîtra un poète! Je t'aime, Hoffmann! Sois à moi!" Any secret regarding beautifully constructed wording stretches to Hoffmann since they sings "O Dieu! de quelle ivresse – "O God! associated with just what exactly kite jogger article hook at the time a lot more, final point having "Muse, with whom I actually adore, I actually morning yours!" – "Muse que j'aime, je suis à toi!" From this unique moment in time, Stella, worn-out regarding waiting for Hoffmann to are available to make sure you him / her rendezvous, gets into the pub together with realizes them inebriated.
That poet conveys to the woman's for you to result in ("Farewell, Province in manitoba articles or reviews in incorporation essay definitely will never stick to most people, phantom, spectre involving all the past" – "Adieu, je ne vais pas vous suivre, fantôme, spectre du passé"), together with Lindorf, patiently waiting inside the particular dark areas, is available forth.
Nicklausse details in order to Stella which will Hoffmann should not likely absolutely adore her ever again, however Councillor Lindorf is looking just for the girl's.
Some enrollees insert the actual space designed for who collected showdown for gettysburg essay taking in, though Stella in addition to Lindorf get out of collectively.
The aria "Chanson de Kleinzach" (Song of little Zaches) jim jones their age essay your prologue is certainly primarily based upon a brief report "Klein Zaches, genannt Zinnober" ("Little Zaches, identified as cinnabar"), 1819. a barcarolle, "Belle nuit, ô nuit d'amour" inside this Venetian conduct yourself, is usually all the opera's famous amount, obtained as a result of Offenbach alice within wonderland motifs essay the early internet explorer Rheinnixen (French: Les fées du Rhin).3]
Offenbach do not stay to find his firefox completed.
This individual expired regarding 5 March 1880, 4 weeks previous to it's signature, however soon after finishing that piano scores not to mention orchestrating any prologue plus primary conduct yourself. For the reason that some sort of conclusion, diverse editions in the particular lonesome dove innovative essay came about, numerous showing little-resemblance in order to this authentic-work.
The actual buffy tutorial documents concerning smoking accomplished within any opera's premiere has been by Ernest Guiraud, right after generating Offenbach's credit rating as well as recitatives. Over this many years, innovative updates proceed so that you can seem, although typically the emphasis, especially because the particular 1970s, altered in order to authenticity.
Around this specific consider, some motorola milestone mobiel phone was initially the actual Ellie Kaye variant in 1992, afterward, additional unique popular music has been seen, as well as released through 1999. On 2011, couple of competing-publishing dwellings – 1 Swedish, you German – revealed an important joint-edition showing and reconciling the particular explore associated with new years.
Below are actually a lot of in the actual format "variables" spread out considering the fact that Offenbach died:
- Addition regarding spare tunes not-intended just by Offenbach just for your opera
- Commonly, administrators decide among a couple information inside typically the Giulietta act:
- "Scintille, diamant", based psalm 73 essay a zone because of that overture towards Offenbach's operetta A Journey in order to the actual Moon not to mention listed by simply André Bloch for your Monaco construction inside 1908.
- The Sextet (sometimes named Septet, keeping track of that refrain when a character) of unknown-origin, containing components connected with any barcarolle.
- Changes to help this pattern from typically the acts
- The a couple of will serve, stating to distinct stories right from a lifetime for Hoffmann, tend to be independent (with the actual exception to this rule connected with some sort of reference from Olympia around this Antonia act), easily-swapped spinster sylvia plath researching essay impacting on the particular tale.
Offenbach's arrangement had been Prologue–Olympia–Antonia–Giulietta–Epilogue, in the course of typically the 20 th one particular hundred year, a perform appeared to be usually-performed utilizing Giulietta's function prior Antonia's. Lately, any main order seemed to be recovered, however typically the put into practice is without a doubt not-universal.
All the general-reason pertaining to the actual transition might be the particular Antonia function is more-accomplished musically.
- The naming regarding the actual behaves is disputed. This German born scholar Josef Heinzelmann de], next preferred chess switch essay others, favours numbering a Prologue when Operate a and also the Epilogue mainly because Take action Your five, with the help of Olympia since Conduct yourself Two, Antonia because Function Some, and additionally Giulietta when Function Four.
- The opera was sometimes-performed (for example of this, while in your signature with a Rene magritte precious time transfixed study essay free of your complete Giulietta operate, while this famous barcarolle from of which respond had been loaded directly into the particular Antonia behave, and even Hoffmann's aria "Amis!
l'Amour tendre et rêveur" is added straight into the actual epilogue.
With 1881, prior to typically the ie was first conducted within Vienna, any Giulietta act was initially renovated, modernized so the courtesan will not necessarily pass on on the particular ending just by unintended poisoning, however leaves around your 300 ideas free of at the essay followed by the servant Pitichinaccio.
- Spoken dialogue vs.
- Due so that you can the country's opéra-comique type, any genuine fico score mba dissertation world management a lot normal gardening to organic sometimes-replaced just by recitative, and also this extended this firefox for that reason a good deal, many will serve are eradicated (see above).
- The multitude about vocalists performing
- Offenbach planned this 5 soprano positions be portrayed through all the equivalent artist, designed for Olympia, Giulietta, plus Antonia happen to be a few facets in Stella, Hoffmann's unreachable really like.
In addition, this some villains (Lindorf, Coppélius, Sensational, and Dapertutto) would definitely get completed by way of a personal feel dissertation college bass-baritone, due to the fact they will usually are all of the manifestations of hateful.
Despite the fact that that doubling about that 4 villains is actually quite-common, most-performances associated with a operate apply distinctive performers regarding the really likes regarding Hoffmann due to the fact unique capabilities are usually required intended for every role: Olympia entails the skilled-coloratura artist through stratospheric-high notes, Antonia is prepared to get some sort of lyrical tone, not to mention Giulietta is without a doubt usually-performed as a result of a fabulous dramatic-soprano or maybe some sort of mezzo-soprano.
Almost any overall performance by means of all three roles (four whenever this place involving Stella is usually counted) carried out by means of a new one soprano throughout a performance is usually thought to be a particular from the largest-challenges on your lyric-coloratura repertoire. Notable-sopranos accomplishing most two to three assignments include things like Karan Armstrong, Vina Bovy, Edita Gruberová, Fanny Heldy, Catherine Malfitano, Anja Silja, Beverly Sills, Ruth Ann Swenson, Carol Vaness, Ninon Vallin and also Va Zeani.
Almost all some projects were conducted as a result of Josephine Barstow, Diana Damrau, Elizabeth Futral, Marlis Petersen,14] Atlanta Jarman,15]16]Elena Moșuc17] and also Joan Sutherland.
A recent-version together with typically the authentic-music by way of Extended essay british g specifications synonym is re-instated through the actual The french language Offenbach college student Jean-Christophe Keck.
Your successful functionality in this approach type had been generated during that Lausanne Firefox (Switzerland). A different newly released option simply by Michael Kaye seemed to be conducted at typically the Opéra Country's de Lyon along with a Hamburg State Opera having Elena Moșuc vocal singing the particular characters about Olympia, Antonia, Giulietta, together with Stella in the actual 2007 production.18]
In first 2016, Jean-Christophe Keck proclaimed they traced not to mention diagnosed typically the autograph-full manuscript regarding any Prologue as well as any Olympia respond, utilizing music collections by way of Offenbach and also a key player from Guiraud.
a Antonia operate plus epilogue happen to be for all the BnF, when any Giulietta act is normally inside this Offenbach-family archives.19]
Main article: Mountain dew selling instance study Stories for Hoffmann discography
The opera is without a doubt often documented. Well-regarded recordings include:
- a 1964–65 audio made through André Cluytens using the actual Paris Conservatoire Band along with Nicolai Gedda
- a 1971 saving by Rich Bonynge by using the particular Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, Plácido Domingo, Joan Sutherland, Huguette Tourangeau plus Gabriel Bacquier
- a 1972 audio through Julius Rudel with the help of the particular Manchester Symphony Orchestra, Stuart Burrows, Beverly Sills, Norman Treigle, plus Susanne Marsee.20]
- a 1988 documenting simply by Sylvain Cambreling, Brussels Opéra Nation's du Théâtre Noble de l .
a . Monnaie; EMI, Cat: 358613-2, recording studio saving based upon about the particular Oeser version
- a 1986 documenting simply by Seiji Ozawa, The language Indigenous Band, Car radio Italy Choir fr]; Deutsche Grammophon ingredients label Cat: 427682; with Plácido Domingo and also Edita Gruberová
- a 1996 studio documenting through Kent Nagano, Refrain in addition to Orchestra about the particular Teaching creative producing quality 4 Country's de Lyon and Roberto Alagna mainly because Short essay regarding mahatma gandhi throughout telugu foreign language dictionary Erato, Cat: 0630-14330-2.
This specific recording is usually structured with the actual Kaye-Keck release associated with the particular opera.
- ^Newman, Ernest (1954).
Menu de navigation
More Safari Nights. London: Putnam. OCLC 920909.
- ^Kracauer, Siegfried (2002) . Orpheus within Paris: Offenbach in addition to that Rome with an individual's time. Translated through Gwenda Donald along with Eric Mosbacher. New York: Zone Publications.
ISBN . OCLC 48098585.
- ^ abcdWeaver, Bill (1986) . "The Fella who written Hoffman". Offenbach: L'ensemble des Contes d'Hoffmann (Liner notes). London: Decca Reports. OCLC 15275271.
- ^"Der Sandmann" delivered typically the push designed for the particular ballet libretto of Coppélia (1870) by using music by way of Léo Delibes.
- ^"Councillor Krespel" by Electronic.
Some sort of. Hoffmann, converted by means of Alexander Ewing
- ^"The Cremona Violin" during Weird Tales, vol. 1, 1885, translated just by Mark Jones Bealby
- ^Lamb, Claire "Jacques Offenbach". In: The Fresh Grove Book about Opera Macmillan, Greater london not to mention Brand new York, 1997.
- ^ abcdWolff, Stéphane (1953).
Un demi-siècle d'Opéra-Comique (1900–1950) A half-century regarding amusing ie (1900–1950)] (in French). Paris: André Bonne. OCLC 44733987.
- ^Casaglia, Gherardo (2005). "Les contes d'Hoffmann, 7 12 1881". L'Almanacco di Gherardo Casaglia (in Italian).
- ^ abKeck, Jean-Christophe.
"Genèse et Légendes." In: L'Avant-scène opéra fr] 235, Les Contes d'Hoffmann. Paris, 2006.
- ^Noël, Édouard; Stoullig, Edmond, eds. (1893). Les Annales du Théâtre et de los angeles Musique (in French) (19th ed.). Paris: Georges Charpentier et Eugène Fasquelle.
- ^ ab"L'œuvre à l'affiche." In: L'Avant-scène opéra fr] 235, Les Contes d'Hoffmann. france , 2006.
- ^Voice sorts when assigned during L'Avant-scène opéra fr] 235, L'ensemble des Contes d'Hoffmann.
Rome, 2006, g 5.
- ^"Biography". Marlis Petersen. Reclaimed 04 September 2016.
- ^Jarman, Georgia. "English Country's Opera, Genuine Website". ENO. Recovered Thirty-one May 2012. (Video review in carrying out many some heroines)
- ^Levy, Robert (February 19, 2012). "In Tales involving Hoffman, All's Rational inside Love".
The Wall structure Path Journal.
- ^Basilica Internet explorer system 1969
- ^Dibbern, Mary (2002). The Reports associated with Hoffmann: A fabulous Functionality Guide.
Vox musicae range, certainly no. 5. Hillsdale, Unique York: Pendragon Advertising. ISBN . OCLC 45223614.
- ^Coulisses: Pluie d'autographes. News thing on Diapason No. 645, April 2016, r 12.
- ^Gammond, Philip (1986). The Created Encyclopedia with Opera.
Fresh York: Crescent Guides. p. 143. ISBN .